Between 1947 and 1969 the U.S. Air Force ran three successive public UFO projects. The first was code-named Sign, followed by Grudge (1949-52) and Blue Book (1952-69). A faction within Project Sign concluded by mid-1948 that UFOs were extraterrestrial spacecraft, but air force Chief of Staff Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg rejected its report. Reorganized as Grudge, the project took a pronounced anti-UFO line. Except for a period between 1951 and 1953, when Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, neither pronor anti-UFO but committed to open-minded inquiry, directed the project (renamed Blue Book in March 1952), Air Force UFO investigations sought to debunk sightings and to explain them, if not always persuasively, as arising from misidentifications and hoaxes.
In 1966 the Air Force entered into a contract with the University of Colorado ostensibly to conduct an independent investigation under the leadership of physicist Edward U. Condon but in fact to find a way of ridding itself of its UFO albatross. The Condon committee, as it was called informally, soon became embroiled in controversy as Condon’s view, which echoed the Air Force’s in dismissing UFOs as nonsense, were known. Released in January 1969, the Condon Report (formally titled Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects ) declared the phenomenon nonexistent and further research pointless. The National Academy of Sciences endorsed the report’s conclusions, and in December 1969 the Air Force cited them when it announced it was closing Blue Book. To many it appeared as if the UFO controversy had ended.
Yet the Condon Report had its critics, including University of Arizona atmospheric physicist James E. McDonald and Northwestern University astronomer (and longtime Blue Book consultant) J. Allen Hynek, who pointedly observed that fully one-third of the cases in the report were listed as unsolved. They also contended that even some of the “explained” cases had been inadequately accounted for. In November 1970 a UFO subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, explicitly rejecting Condon’s conclusions, remarked on the “small residue of well-documented but unexplainable cases which form the hard core of the UFO controversy.” Hynek’s 1972 book The UFO Experience argued for renewed inquiry into what he thought might prove to be “not merely the next small step in the march of science but a mighty and totally unexpected quantum leap.”
Aliens Come From Hell — MIRRORED By SHIELD OF THE SON
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